Ingredient Substitutions

Substituting one ingredient for another should only be done when you don’t have the necessary ingredient on hand in your kitchen. Substitutions can change the flavor and outcome of the finished baked goods. But, in a pinch, it’s good to know some basic substitutions.

Ingredient
Amount Substitution
Anise seed, whole or ground 1 teaspoon
  • 1 teaspoon star anise
Allspice 1 teaspoon
  • ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon, plus ½ teaspoon ground cloves
Apple Pie Spice 1 teaspoon
  • ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon, plus ¼ teaspoon ground nutmeg, plus 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, plus 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom, ginger, or cloves
Arrowroot 1 tablespoon
  • 2¼ teaspoons cornstarch
  • 2¼ teaspoons potato starch
  • 2¼ teaspoons rice starch
  • ½ to 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour (to thicken)
Armagnac ¼ cup
  • ¼ cup Cognac
  • ¼ cup brandy
Baking powder, double acting 1 teaspoon
  • ¼ teaspoon baking soda, plus ½ teaspoon cream of tartar▪ 1½ teaspoons single-action baking powder
  • ¼ teaspoon baking soda, plus ½ cup buttermilk, sour milk, or yogurt to replace ½ cup non-acidic liquid in the recipe.
Baking soda 1 teaspoon
  • 4 teaspoons double-acting baking powder (and replace acidic liquid in recipe with non-acidic liquid)
Bourbon ¼ cup
  • ¼ cup Scotch
  • ¼ cup Rye Whiskey
  • ¼ cup Cognac
Brandy ¼ cup
  • ¼ cup Cognac
  • ¼ cup Bourbon
  • ¼ cup Scotch Whiskey
  • ¼ cup Dark Rum
Bread crumbs, dry 1 cup
  • 1-1/3 cup fresh bread crumbs
  • ¾ cup plain cracker crumbs
  • ¾ cup matzoh meal
  • ¾ cup crushed cornflake cereal
  • 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
Buttermilk, sour milk 1 cup
  • 1 tablespoon vinegar, plus enough milk to make 1 cup (let stand 5 minutes.)
  • 2 tablespoons lemon juice, plus enough milk to make 1 cup (let stand 5 minutes.)
  • 1 cup milk, plus 1½ teaspoons cream of tartar
  • 1 cup plain yogurt
  • 1 cup sour cream
  • 1 cup mild-flavored soy milk, plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice
Butter, unsalted 1 cup
  • 1 cup salted butter (decrease the salt in the recipe by ½ teaspoon.)
  • 1 cup vegetable shortening
  • 1 cup margarine
  • 1 cup lard
Ingredient
Amount Substitution
Cardamom, ground 1 teaspoon
  • ¾ teaspoon ground cinnamon, plus ¼ teaspoon freshly grated lemon zest
Cassia, ground 1 teaspoon
  • 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
Chocolate, bittersweet 1 ounce
  • ½ ounce unsweetened chocolate, plus 1 tablespoon granulated sugar
  • 1½ tablespoons cocoa powder, plus ½ tablespoon unsalted butter, plus 1 teaspoon granulated sugar
Chocolate, semisweet 1 ounce
  • 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate, plus 1½ tablespoons granulated sugar
  • 1 ounce bittersweet chocolate
  • 1½ tablespoons cocoa powder, plus ½ tablespoon butter, plus ½ tablespoon granulated sugar
Chocolate, bittersweet or semisweet, melted 6 ounces
  • ½ cup plus 1 tablespoon unsweetened cocoa, plus 7 tablespoons granulated sugar, plus 3 tablespoons unsalted butter
Chocolate, Mexican 1 ounce
  • 1 ounce semi-sweet chocolate, plus ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon, plus 1 drop of almond extract.
Chocolate, milk, chips or chunks 1 ounce
  • 1 ounce bittersweet or semisweet chocolate, plus 1 tablespoon granulated sugar
  • 1 ounce sweet dark chocolate
  • 1 ounce white chocolate
Chocolate, sweet 1 ounce
  • 1 ounce bittersweet or semisweet chocolate, plus ½ table granulated sugar
  • 1 ounce milk chocolate
  • 1 ounce white chocolate
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 ounce
  • 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa, plus 1 tablespoon melted unsalted butter
  • 1-2/3 ounce bittersweet or semisweet chocolate (and reduce sugar in recipe by 4 tablespoons.)
  • 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water or milk
Chocolate, white, chips or chunks 1 ounce
  • 1 ounce milk chocolate
Cinnamon, ground 1 teaspoon
  • 1 teaspoon ground cassia
Cocoa, unsweetened, Dutch-processed 3 tablespoons
  • 3 tablespoons natural cocoa powder, plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda
  • 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate, plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (and reduce the fat in the recipe by 1 tablespoon.)
  • 3 tablespoons carob powder
Cocoa, unsweetened, natural 3 tablespoons
  • tablespoons Dutch-processed cocoa, plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar or lemon juice or vinegar
  • 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate (and reduce the fat in the recipe by 1 tablespoon.)
  • 3 tablespoons carob powder
Ingredient
Amount Substitution
Coconut, fresh 1 cup
  • 1 cup dried flaked coconut
  • ¾ cup dried shredded coconut
Coconut, dry, shredded 1 cup
  • 1¼ cups freshly grated coconut
  • 1¼ cups dried flaked coconut
Coconut milk, fresh 1 cup
  • 1 cup canned coconut milk (not low-fat)
  • 3 tablespoons canned cream of coconut, plus enough water or milk to make 1 cup
  • 3 to 5 tablespoons grated creamed coconut dissolved in enough whole milk to make 1 cup.
  • ¼ cup coconut cream powder, plus 1 cup water or milk
Coconut cream, fresh 1 cup
  • 1 cup canned coconut cream
  • 1 cup canned coconut milk (not low fat)
  • 1 cup heavy cream, plus ½ cup coconut cream powder
  • ¼ to 1/3 cup grated creamed coconut dissolved in enough heavy cream to make 1 cup
Coffee, strong brewed ¼ cup
  • 2 tablespoons instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water
Cognac ¼ cup
  • ¼ cup Armagnac
  • ¼ cup Bourbon
  • ¼ cup Scotch
  • ¼ cup Rye Whiskey
  • ¼ cup Dark Rum
Cornmeal, stone ground ½ cup
  • ½ cup regular milled cornmeal
  • ½ cup corn grits
  • ½ cup polenta
  • ½ cup maize meal
Cornstarch 1 tablespoon
  • 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 1 tablespoon potato starch
  • 1 tablespoon rice starch
  • 1½ tablespoons arrowroot
  • 4 teaspoons instant tapioca
Corn syrup, light 1 cup
  • 1 cup granulated sugar (and increase the amount of liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup or decrease the flour by ¼ cup.)
  • 1 cup liquid glucose
  • 1 cup dark corn syrup
Corn syrup, dark 1 cup
  • 1 cup light or dark brown sugar (and increase the amount of liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup or decrease the flour by ¼ cup.)
  • 1 cup light corn syrup
  • ¾ cup light corn syrup plus ¼ cup molasses, maple syrup, or dark honey
Cream, half and half 1 cup
  • ½ cup whole milk, plus ½ cup light cream
  • ½ cup partly skimmed milk, plus ½ cup heavy cream
  • 7/8 cup whole milk, plus 2 tablespoons unsalted butter, melted
Cream, heavy (not for whipping) 1 cup
  • 1 cup evaporated milk
  • 2/3 cup whole milk, plus 1/3 cup melted unsalted butter
Ingredient Amount Substitution
Cream, light 1 cup
  • 7/8 cup milk, plus 3 tablespoons unsalted butter
Cream, sour 1 cup
  • 1 cup plain yogurt
  • ¾ cup buttermilk, plus 1/3 cup unsalted butter
  • 1 cup crème fraiche
  • ¾ cup whole milk, plus 1 tablespoon white vinegar, plus ¼ cup melted unsalted butter
  • 1 cup mild-flavored soy milk
Cream of tartar ¼ teaspoon
  • ¼ teaspoon white vinegar
Crème fraiche 1 cup
  • 1 cup sour cream
  • ½ cup sour cream, plus ½ cup heavy cream
  • 1 cup mascarpone cheese
Currants, dried 1 cup
  • 1 cup raisins
  • 1 cup dried cranberries
  • 1 cup  dried blueberries
  • 1 cup dried cherries
  • 1 cup other dried fruit, chopped into small pieces
Eggs, whole 1 large
egg
  • 2 large egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon water (in baked goods)
  • 2 large egg yolks (in custards, sauces, puddings, and mousses)
  • 3½ tablespoons frozen whole egg, thawed
  • 3 to 4 tablespoons egg substitute
  • 2½ tablespoons powdered whole egg, plus 2½ tablespoons water
Eggs, whites 1 large
egg white
  • 2 tablespoons frozen egg whites, thawed
  • 1 tablespoon powdered egg white, plus 2 tablespoons water
Eggs, yolks 2 large
yolks
  • 1 large whole egg
Eggs, yolks 1 large
yolk
  • 3½ teaspoons frozen egg yolks, thawed
  • 2 tablespoons powdered egg yolk, plus 2 teaspoons water
Flour, white, all-purpose, sifted 1 cup
  • 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour (not self-rising)
  • 1 cup self-rising flour and omit salt and baking powder from the recipe.
  • 7/8 cup bread flour
  • ½ cup cake flour, plus ½ cup whole wheat flour
  • ½ cup whole wheat flour, plus ½ cup oat flour
Flour, white, all-purpose, as a thickener ¼ cup
  • 2 tablespoons cornstarch
  • 3 tablespoons instant tapioca
  • 2½ tablespoons arrowroot
  • 2 tablespoons potato flour
  • 2 tablespoons rice flour
Flour, white, cake 1 cup
  • 1 cup less 2 tablespoons white all-purpose flour
Flour, white, self-rising 1 cup
  • 1 cup all-purpose or 1 cup cake flour, plus 1 teaspoon baking powder, plus ½ teaspoon salt
Flour, whole wheat 1 cup
  • 7/8 cup white flour, plus 2 tablespoons wheat germ
Ingredient Amount Substitution
Ginger, ground 1/8 teaspoon
  • 1 tablespoon fresh ginger root, finely chopped
Gingerroot, fresh 1 teaspoon
  • ¼ teaspoon ground ginger
Honey 1 cup
  • 1¼ cups granulated white or brown sugar, plus ¼ cup additional liquid added to the recipe, plus ½ teaspoon cream of tartar
  • ¾ cup light molasses, plus ½ cup granulated sugar
  • ¾ cup dark corn syrup, plus ½ cup granulated sugar
  • ¾ cup maple syrup, plus ½ cup granulated sugar
  • ¾ cup barley malt syrup, plus ½ cup granulated sugar (and increase dry ingredients by 3 tablespoons.)
  • ¾ cup brown rice syrup, plus ½ cup granulated sugar (and increase dry ingredients by 3 tablespoons.)
Lemon juice, freshly squeezed 2 tablespoons
  • 2 tablespoons bottled lemon juice
  • 1½ tablespoons freshly squeezed lime juice
  • ¼ teaspoon cider vinegar
Lemon zest, freshly grated 1 tablespoon
  • 1 tablespoon freshly grated orange zest
  • 1 tablespoon freshly grated lime zest
  • 1 tablespoon finely chopped candied lemon peel
  • 1 tablespoon finely chopped candied citron
  • 1 tablespoon orange or lemon marmalade
  • 1 tablespoon finely minced candied ginger
Lime juice, freshly squeezed 2 tablespoons
  • 2½ tablespoons freshly squeezed lemon juice
  • 3 tablespoons freshly squeezed orange juice
Lime zest, freshly grated 2 teaspoons
  • 2 teaspoons freshly grated lemon zest
  • 2 teaspoons freshly grated orange zest
  • 2 teaspoons finely chopped candied citron
  • 2 teaspoons finely minced candied ginger
Mace, ground 1 teaspoon
  • 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
  • 1 teaspoon ground allspice
Margarine 1 cup
  • 1 cup butter
  • 1 cup solid vegetable shortening
Maple sugar, finely grated ½ cup
  • 1 cup maple syrup (and reduce the liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup)
  • ¾ cup granulated sugar, plus 1 teaspoon pure maple extract
Maple syrup 1 cup
  • ½ cup maple sugar (and increase the liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup)
  • 1 cup honey
Mascarpone cheese 1 cup
  • 1 cup crème fraiche
  • ¾ cup cream cheese, plus ¼ cup heavy cream (beaten together)
Milk, fresh, whole 1 cup
  • 1 cup skim (non-fat) milk, plus 2 tablespoons unsalted butter
  • ¼ cup powdered whole milk, plus 7/8 cup water
  • ¼ cup powdered skim milk, plus 7/8 cup water, plus 1 tablespoon unsalted butter
  • ½ cup evaporated whole milk, plus ½ cup water
  • 1 cup water, plus 2 tablespoons unsalted butter
  • 1 cup mild-flavored soy or nut milk
  • 1 cup fruit juice
Milk, fresh, skim (non-fat) 1 cup
  • ¼ cup powdered skim milk, plus 7/8 cup water
Milk, evaporated, whole 1 cup
  • 1 cup light cream
  • 1 cup heavy cream
Ingredient Amount Substitution
Molasses 1 cup
  • 1 cup dark honey
  • 1 cup maple syrup
  • ¾ cup dark brown sugar dissolved in ¼ cup liquid
  • 1 cup dark corn syrup
  • 1 cup brown rice syrup
  • 1 cup barley malt syrup
Orange juice, freshly squeezed 1 cup
  • 1 cup reconstituted frozen concentrate orange juice
Orange zest, freshly grated 1 tablespoon
  • 1 tablespoon freshly grated lemon zest
  • 1 tablespoon freshly grated lime zest
  • 1 tablespoon finely chopped candied orange peel
  • 2 teaspoons orange marmalade
  • 1 tablespoon candied ginger, finely minced
Peanut butter 1 cup
  • 1 cup of another nut butter, such as almond or hazelnut
  • 1 cup tahini (sesame paste)
Pumpkin Pie Spice 1 teaspoon
  • ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon, plus ¼ teaspoon ground ginger, plus 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg, plus 1/8 teaspoon ground cloves or allspice
Raisins 1 cup
  • 1 cup dried currants
  • 1 cup dried blueberries
  • 1 cup dried cranberries
  • 1 cup dried cherries
  • 1 cup other dried fruit, chopped into small pieces
Star anise, ground 1 teaspoon
  • 1 teaspoon ground anise seed
  • 1 teaspoon ground fennel seed
Sugar, confectioner’s 1 cup
  • ½ cup plus 1 tablespoon granulated sugar
Sugar, granulated, white 1 cup
  • 1 cup superfine sugar
  • 1 cup firmly packed light brown sugar
  • 1 cup raw sugar
  • 1¾ cup confectioner’s sugar, sifted
  • 1¼ cups molasses or maple syrup, plus ½ teaspoon baking soda (and decrease the liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup or increase the flour by ¼ cup.)
  • ¾ cups honey, plus ½ teaspoon baking soda (and decrease the liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup or increase the flour by ¼ cup.)
  • 1 cup maple sugar, plus ½ teaspoon baking soda
Sugar, brown, light or dark 1 cup firmly packed
  • 1 cup raw sugar
  • 1 cup granulated white sugar
  • 7/8 cup granulated sugar, plus ¼ cup molasses, maple syrup, dark corn syrup, or honey
  • For light brown sugar, substitute ½ cup dark brown sugar, plus ½ cup granulated sugar
Sugar, raw 1 cup, firmly packed
  • 1 cup light or dark brown sugar
  • 7/8 cup granulated white sugar, plus ¼ cup molasses
Sugar, superfine 1 cup
  • 1 cup granulated white sugar processed in a food processor or grinder
Sugar, fructose 1 cup
  • 1½ cups superfine sugar
  • 1½ cups granulated sugar processed in a food processor or grinder
Ingredient Amount Substitution
Tapioca, instant (quick cooking) 2 tablespoons
  • 4 tablespoons pearl tapioca
  • 3 tablespoons flour
  • 1½ tablespoons cornstarch
Vanilla extract, pure 1 teaspoon
  • ½ Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla bean
  • ½ Mexican vanilla bean
  • ¼ Tahitian vanilla bean
  • ½ to 1 teaspoon other extract, such as almond, peppermint, lemon, orange, etc.
Vanilla bean, Bourbon-Madagascar 1 bean
  • 1 Mexican vanilla bean
  • ½ Tahitian vanilla bean
  • 2 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
Vanilla bean, Mexican 1 bean
  • 1 Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla bean
  • ½ Tahitian vanilla bean
  • 2 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
Vanilla bean, Tahitian 1 bean
  • 2 Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla beans
  • 2 Mexican vanilla beans
  • 4 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
Vegetable shortening, solid 1 cup
  • 1 cup butter
  • 1 cup lard
  • 1 cup margarine
Vinegar, white ¼ cup
  • 1/3 cup lemon juice
  • ¼ cup apple cider vinegar
  • ¼ cup champagne vinegar
  • ¼ cup malt vinegar
Yogurt, plain (not low-fat) 1 cup
  • 1 cup sour cream
  • 1 cup buttermilk
  • 1 cup crème fraiche
  • 1 cup heavy cream, plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice